A couple of weeks ago I was at GBIF meeting in Copenhagen, and there was a discussion about adding a new feature to the GBIF portal. The conversation went something like this:
Advisor: "We really need this feature, now!"
Developer: "OK, but which of these other things you've told us we need to do should we stop doing, so we can add this new feature?"
Resources are limited, and adding new features to a project can be difficult. This got me thinking about the issue of annotating data, in GBIF and other biodiversity projects. There have been a number of recent papers on annotating biodiversity data, such as:
Morris, R. A., Dou, L., Hanken, J., Kelly, M., Lowery, D. B., Ludäscher, B., Macklin, J. A., et al. (2013, November 4). Semantic Annotation of Mutable Data. (I. N. Sarkar, Ed.)PLoS ONE. Public Library of Science (PLoS). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076093
Tschöpe, O., Macklin, J. A., Morris, R. A., Suhrbier, L., & Berendsohn, W. G. (2013, December 20). Annotating biodiversity data via the Internet. Taxon. International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT). doi:10.12705/626.4
It seems to me that these potentially suffer the assumption that data aggregators such as GBIF, and data providers such as natural history collections have sufficient resources in place to (a) implement such systems, and (b) process the annotations made by the community and update their records. What if neither assumption holds true?
Everyone is busy
Any system which requires a project to add another feature is going to have to compete with other priorities. I ran into this with my BioNames project, which was partly funded by EOL. BioNames links taxonomic names for animals (obtained from ION) to the primary literature, for example Pinnotheres atrinicola was published in the following paper:
Page, R. D. M. (1983). Description of a new species of Pinnotheres , and redescription of P. novaezelandiae (Brachyura: Pinnotheridae) . New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 10(2), 151–162. doi:10.1080/03014223.1983.10423904.
Ideally, all the links between names and publications that I'd assembled in BioNames would have been added to EOL, so that (wherever possible) users of EOL could see the original description of a taxon in EOL. But this didn't happen. In order to get BioNames into EOL I had to export the data in Darwin Core format, which is poorly suited to this kind of data. It also became clear that BioNames and EOL had rather different data models when it came to taxa, names, and publications. This meant it was going to be challenge providing the data in w ay that was usable by EOL. Plus, EOL was pretty busy doing other things such as developing TraitBank™ (yes, that's a "™" after TraitBank). So, I never did get BioNames content into EOL.
But there's another way to do this.
The Web means never having to ask for permission
How does this help us with annotation? Well, with a little programming, you can add features that you think are "missing" from a web page, and you don't need to ask anyone's permission to do it. So, I could negotiate with EOL about how to get data from BioNames into EOL, or I can simply do this:
What I've done here is create a bookmarklet that recognises that you are looking at an EOL page, it then calls the BioNames API and displays the original publication of the taxon displayed on the page (in this case, Pinnotheres atrincola). So, I've added the information from BioNames to the EOL page, without needing EOL to do anything.
But it gets better. We can do this with pretty much any web page. The example above displays the original publication of a taxon name, but imagine we are looking at the publisher's page for that article (you can see it here: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014223.1983.10423904). Wouldn't it be nice if the publisher knew that this paper described a new species of crab? We could negotiate with the publisher about how to give them that information, and how they could display it, or we can just add it:
This time the bookmarklet recognises that the web page has a DOI, then asks BioNames whether there have been any names published in the paper with that DOI, if it finds any they are displayed in the popup.
Bookmarklets enable you to enhance a web page with any information you like. This makes them ideal for displaying annotations on a page. If you want to try yourself, you can grab the bookmarklet from here.
Making annotations visible
Bookmarklets can be used to solve one part of the annotation problem, namely showing existing annotations. I have lots of exmaples of errors in datasets, I blog about some of these, I store some in Evernote for future reference, some end up in unfinished manuscripts, and so on. The problem is that these annotations are of little use to anyone else because if you go to GBIF you don't see my annotations (or, indeed, anyone else's). But we can use a bookmarklet to display these, without having to pester GBIF themselves to add this feature! Imagine a bookmarklet that you could click on and it shows you whether anyone as queried the identification of a specimen, or the location of a specimen?
Where do the annotations come from?
Of course, all this presupposes that we have annotations to start with. I think there are at least two classes of annotations. The first, most obvious annotations are ones that change or add attributes to an object. For example, adding latitude and longitude coordinates to a specimen. These are annotations we would want to display just on the corresponding page in the source database (e.g., displaying a map in the annotation popup on GBIF for a record we've georeferenced).
The second class comprise cross-links between data sets. For example, linking a species in EOL to DOI of the publication that first described that species. Or linking a specimen in GBIF to the sequences in GenBank that were obtained from that specimen. These annotations are different in that we might want to display them on multiple web pages (e.g., pages served by both a biodiversity database and an academic publisher). From this perspective, a database like BioNames is essentially a big store of annotations.
But we need more than this, we need to be able to annotate any class of data that is relevant to biodiversity. We need to be able to edit erroneous GBIF records, flag Genbank sequences that have been misidentified, document taxonomic names that are entirely spurious, and so on. And we need to make these annotations available via APIs so that anywone can access them. To me, it seems obvious that we need a single, centralised annotation store.
A global annotation store
One way to implement an annotation store would be to create a wiki-style database that the community could edit. This database gets populated with data that can then be edited, refined, and discussed. For example, imagine a GBIF user spots an occurrence that is clearly wrong (a frog in the middle of the ocean). They could have a bookmarklet that they click on, and it displays any existing annotations of that record. If there aren't any, let's imagine there is a link to the annotaion store. Clicking on that creates a record for that occurrence, and the user then edits that. Perhaps they discover that the latitude and longitudes have been swapped, so they swap them back, and save the record. The next person to go to that page in GBIF clicks on their bookmarklet and discoveres that there is a potential issue with that record (the popup displayed by the bookmarklet will have a "warning symbol", and an updated map).
Some annotations will be simple, some may require some analysis. For example, a claim that a GenBank sequence has been misidentified would be stronger if it was backed up by a BLAST analysis that demonstrated that the sequence was clustered with taxa that you would not expect based on its putitative identification.
We can also annotate in bulk, and upload these annotations directly to the annotation store. For example, we could map GBIF taxa to taxonomic name identifiers from nomenclators such as ION, ZooBank, IPNI, Index Fungorum, etc., then map those identifiers to the primary litertaure, and upload all of that data to the annotation store, making them available to anyone visiting GBIF (or, indeed, the nomenclators). We could BLAST DNA barcode sequences and suggest potential identifications. We could add lists of publications that cite museum specimen codes, and display those on the GBIF page that corresponds to each code. There is almost no limit to the richness of annotations we could add to existing webpages.
One aspect of annotation that I've glossed over is how the annotations get back to the primary data providers. There has been some work on this (see papers cited at the start), but in a sense I don't think this is the most pressing problem (in part because I suspect most providers are in no position to undertake the kind of data editing and cleaning required). My concern is at the other end of the process. Users of biodiversity data are frequently presented with data that is demonstrably erroneous, and it inconveniences them, as well as hurting the reputation of aggregators such as GBIF, or databases such as GenBank. Anyone doing an analysis of these sorts of data will spend some time cleaning and correcting the data, we desperately need mechanisms to capture these annotations and make them available to other users. The extent to which these annotations filter back to the primary data providers is, in my view, a less pressing issue.
That said, a central annotation store would have lots of advantages for primary providers. It's one place to go to get annotations. The fate of a user's edits could help develop metrics of reliability of annotations, and so on.
The reason I find this approach attractive is that it frees us from having to wait for projects like GBIF and GenBank to support annotations. We don't need to wait, we can simply do it ourselves right now. We can add overlays that augment existing data (e.g., adding original publications to EOL web pages), or flag errors. Take the example bookmarklet from here for a spin and see what it can do. It's very crude, but I think it gives an indication of the potential of this approach.
So, "all" we need is a centralised, editable, database of annotations that we can hook the bookmarklet into. Simples.